Title: CHEMISTRY – III (Code-09050305)
B.Sc. (Hons), Semester-III
|1||Chemistry of d-Block Elements: Definition of transition elements, position in the periodic table, General characteristics & properties of d-block elements, Comparison of properties of 3d elements with 4d & 5d elements with reference only to ionic radii, oxidation state, magnetic and spectral properties.
Coordination Compounds: Werner’s coordination theory, effective atomic number concept, chelates, nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism in coordination compounds, valence bond theory of transition metal complexes.
Metal-ligand Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes: Limitations of valence bond theory, an elementary idea of crystal-field theory, crystal field splitting in octahedral and tetrahedral complexes, factors affecting the crystal-field parameters.
|2||Thermodynamics: Definition of thermodynamic terms: system, surrounding etc. Types of systems, intensive and extensive properties. St ate and path funct ions and their differentials. Thermodynamic process. Concept of heat and work. Zeroth Law of thermodynamics, First law of thermodynamics statement, definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacity, heat capacit ies at constant volume and pressure and their relationship. Calculation of w.q. dU & dH for the expansion of ideal gases under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible process, Kirchoff`s equation. Second law of thermodynamics, need for the law, different statements of the law, Carnot ’s cycles and its efficiency, Carnot’s theorem, Thermodynamics scale of temperature. Concept of entropy – entropy as a stat e function, entropy as a function of P, V & T.||Must know||12|
|3||Alcohols: Monohydric alcohols nomenclature, methods of formation by reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters. Hydrogen bonding. Acidic nature. Dihydric alcohols — nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical react ions o f vicinal glycols,
Phenols: Nomenclature, structure and bonding. Preparation of phenols, Comparative acidic strengths of alcohols and phenols, resonance stabilization of phenoxide ion. Mechanisms of Fries rearrangement , Claisen rearrangement, and Schott en and Baumann react ions.
Epoxides: Synthes is of epoxides. Acid and base-catalyzed ring opening of epoxides.
|4||Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy: Absorption laws (Beer-Lambert law), molar absorptivity, presentation and analysis of UV spectra, types of electronic transitions, effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore and auxochrome. Bathochromic, hypsochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic shift s. Carboxylic Acids & Acid Derivatives: Nomenclature of Carboxylic acids, structure and bonding, , acidity of carboxylic acids, effects of subst ituents on acid strength. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky rea ct ion. Mechanism of decarboxylat ion. Relative stability of acyl derivatives. interconversion of acid der ivat ives by nucleophilic acyl subst itut ion.Mechanisms o f est er ificat ion and hydrolysis (acidic and basic).||Nice to know||14|