Title: CHEMISTRY IV (Code 09050405)
|1||Non-aqueous Solvents: Physical properties of a solvent, types of solvents and their general characteristics, reactions in non-aqueous solvents with reference to liquid NH3 and liquid SO2
Acids and Bases, HSAB Concept: Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry, the Lux – Flood, Solvent system and Lewis concepts of acids & bases, relative strength of acids & bases, Concept of Hard and Soft Acids & Bases.
Chemistry of f – block elements
Lanthanides: Occurrence, Electronic structure, oxidation states and ionic radii and lanthanide contraction and complex formation of lanthanide compounds.
Actinides: General features and chemistry of actinides, Comparison of properties of Lanthanides and Actinides and with transition elements. Elementary idea about the transuranic elements.
|2||Thermodynamics: Third law of thermodynamics: Nernst heat theorem, Thermodynamic functions G,H,E,A & S. Criteria fo r thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of a process in terms of thermodynamic functions.
Chemical Equilibrium: Equilibrium constant and free energy, concept of chemical potent ial, Thermodynamic derivat ion of law of chemical equilibrium. Clapeyron equation and clausius – clapeyrou equation it s applications
|3||Electrochemistry: Electrolytic and Galvanic cells – reversible & Irreversible cells, conventional represent a t ion of electrochemical cells. EMF of cell and its measurement, Weston standard cell, activity and activity coefficients .Calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reaction (G, H &K). Nernst equation, predict ion of single electrode potential and EMF of cell. Reference electrodes; standard hydrogen electrode & calomel electro de standard electrode potential, sign convention, electrochemical series and its applications.
Infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy: Molecular vibrations, Hooke’s law, select ion ru les, intensity and posit ion of IR bands, measurement of IR spectrum, fingerprint region, characteristic absorptions of various functional groups.
|4||Amines: Structure and nomenclature of amines, physica l propert ies. Separation of a mixture of pr imary, secondary and tertiary amines. Structural features affecting basicity of amines. Gabriel phthalimide reaction,Hofmann bromamide reaction.electrophilic aromatic substitution in aryl amines, react ions of amines wit h nitrous acid.
Diazonium Salts: Mechanism of diazo t isat ion, structure of benzene diazonium chloride,
Replacement of diazo group by H, OH, F, Cl, Br, I, NO2 and CN groups.
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature and structure of the carbonyl group. Synthesis of aldehydes and ketones with particular reference to the synthesis of aldehydes from acid chlorides, advantage of oxidation of alcohols with chromium trioxide (Sarett reagent) pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and pyridinium dichromate.,. Comparison of reactivities of aldehydes and ketones. Mechanism of nucleophilic additions to carbonyl group with particular emphasis on benzoin and aldol, condensations. Condensation with ammonia and its derivatives. Wittig reaction. Mannich reaction.
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